Answer D. All of the above
According to 2016 European guidelines on the ketogenic diet in infants with refractory epilepsy, the following are absolute contraindications for the ketogenic diet in infants: fatty acid oxidation deficiencies, pyruvate carboxylase deficiency and other gluconeogenisis defects (e.g. fructose 1,6 diphosphatase deficiency), glycogen storage diseases (except type 2), ketolysis defects, ketogenesis defects, porphyria, prolonged QT syndrome (and other cardiac diseases), liver, kidney or pancreatic insufficiency, and hyperinsulinemia.
Source: van der Louw E, van den Hurk D, Neal E, et al. Ketogenic diet guidelines for infants with refractory epilepsy. Eur J Paediatr Neurol. 2016;206:798-809.